Table of contents

Multi-user accounts and Public-Facing Service Accounts Guide


This guide sets out when multi-user accounts should be used, although this is discouraged and should be avoided if possible. The guide also explains how public-facing service accounts should be authenticated. For more information, refer to the Password Management Guide.

This guide has been written in alignment with NCSC guidance.

Multi-user accounts

In this context, a multi-user account is where a single set of credentials is used by more than one person. This can be found on legacy systems where there is a dedicated administrator account. Multi-user accounts allow multiple users with individual logins and varying permissions to use the same account. Multi-user accounts need to be managed carefully using Privileged Account Management (PAM) or a Bastion server to avoid security risks associated with accountability. Multi-user accounts should only be used directly if there is no alternative.

Note: A Bastion server is a specially strengthened system that provides access to parts of the Ministry of Justice (MoJ) private network from an external network, such as the Internet. It provide specific access to to a well-defined set of servers or services, rather than permitting general access across the network.

The multi-user account checklist requires that you:

  • Undertake a Business Impact Assessment (BIA) before implementation of a multi-user account to understand risks posed to the MoJ.

    Note: The BIA provides details on how the business views the impact to their information assets and services following a loss of Confidentiality, Integrity or Availability. This is useful because it provides a steer on what types of incidents result in the highest impact to the business and how tolerant the business is to a loss of service provision. For help on creating a BIA, contact the Security team.

  • Create a pre-defined and authorised list of users.
  • Implement using the ‘need to know’ access principle on the PAM. Alternatively, if using a bastion host, find out what options there are to enforce this principle.
  • Regularly check for redundant user IDs and accounts on either the PAM or bastion hosts. These should then be blocked or removed.

Public-facing services

Developers and administrators should ensure that front-end users who access the MoJ public-facing services or applications are authenticated through the GOV.UK Verify Service. When this is not possible, for example when an individual does not have a UK address, passwords must:

  • Be easy to use, for example, pasting passwords into web forms should be enabled.
  • Not be forcibly changed simply as a result of a period of time passing. However, passwords and other account access mechanisms must be revoked for an individual when they are no longer authorised to work with the account.
  • Use Two Factor Authentication (the Password Creation and Authentication Guide provides further advice).
  • Be changed when required, for example after a system compromise is identified, or if the limit of unsuccessful password attempts is reached and the account is locked.
  • Be reset using a one-time password.

The Password Creation and Authentication Guide provides further guidance creating a strong and complex password.

Service accounts

Service accounts must be used for system and application authentication at a privileged level. Service accounts must use certificates for authentication, however if these cannot be used, then passwords are an acceptable alternative. The Password Creation and Authentication Guide provides further guidance on how you must create a strong and complex password.

Contact details

For any further questions or advice relating to security, contact:


If you have any questions or comments about this guidance, such as suggestions for improvements, please contact: